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Among national-brand purchasers, bottom-tier brands lose, mid-tier brands gain, and top-tier brands remain relatively unaffected.
In contractions, R&D is more effective than advertising.
This definition has been applied in marketing studies by, among others, Kamakura and Du ().
BCs have traditionally received ample attention in the economic literature, and many of the definitions and operationalizations have (not surprisingly) originated from that field.
Before 2000, academic marketing research on the topic was scarce.
In a 2005 review by Srinivasan, Rangaswamy and Lilien (p.